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Polygon’s technical lead explains what to anticipate from zkEVM

The Ethereum ecosystem is ready to witness one of many hottest blockchain developments this yr, with quite a few firms keen to use Polygon’s upcoming zkEVM rollup.

What are zero-knowledge proofs?

Zero-knowledge (ZK) expertise is a cryptographic resolution reshaping the blockchain trade. They execute languages and low-level bytecode at a programmable stage, backed by the identical guidelines because the Ethereum mainnet.

It’s a digital machine that makes use of zero-knowledge proofs to confirm knowledge with out revealing any details about the information’s content material or properties. It’s a censorship-resistant protocol replicating the transaction execution setting of the Ethereum mainnet.

Vitalik Buterin, the founding father of Ethereum, categorized zkEVMs into 4 important varieties.

  1. Kind-1 zkEVMs: absolutely equal to Ethereum
  2. Kind-2 zkEVMs: EVM (not Ethereum) equivalence
  3. Kind-3 zkEVMs: departing from EVM
  4. Kind-4 zkEVMs: shut cousins to the EVM
zkEVM types comparison by Vitalik
(Supply: Ethereum weblog)

“The undertaking is a full engineering undertaking,” stated Jordi Baylina, who leads the technical crew constructing the Polygon zkEVM. “The concept is that with these electronics, we by some means constructed a processor. On prime of that, a program could be written that processes transactions. It’s a full stack of parts with totally different groups working in every of those layers in these stacks.”

In a YouTube video launched Mar. 2, Baylina defined the technical parts behind the rollout, “the system that we’re constructing is censorship resistant. It’s not an ideal resolution, however as much as a sure level as a result of the system isn’t common.”

“We created the meeting itself. It’s a brand new processor, new meeting, new approach of writing {hardware}.”

Technical particulars

With the zkEVM rollup, an ERC-20 switch will outline distinctive knowledge infrastructures corresponding to ProgramCounter, GlobalCounter, EVMWord, GasInfo, and GasCost, which embrace and comprise components corresponding to stack, reminiscence, and opcodes. The laptop and gc are encapsulated to usize, whereas EVMWord encapsulates a u8 array with a size of 32.

To simplify memory-related operations, builders cleverly make the most of Rust macros to extract crucial reminiscence data corresponding to index and vary traits and implement them standardized. Then again, Storage is represented by a HashMap, and its key values are all EVMWord

StackAddress is represented as a usize with the Stack a dynamic array consisting of EVMWord.

MemoryAddress can be a usize, with values between 0 and 1023, whereas Reminiscence is an array of u8.

The total technical stack of the zkEVM rollout is on the market on github.

The race for zkEVM supremacy

The race is on to hit the market with a working product.

A number of tasks are in a race to launch the primary absolutely useful and EVM-equivalent zkEVM, with among the prime contenders being Polygon zkEVM, zkSync, StarkNET, and Scroll.

Polygon zkEVM’s is open-source and goals to chop transaction prices by as much as 90%, whereas zkSync 2.0 is stay on the Ethereum Testnet, permitting builders to put in writing Solidity good contracts. StarkNET makes use of ZK-STARKs, that are safer however have limitations, and Scroll is constructing a excessive composability resolution that prioritizes safety and transparency.

Polygon’s $250M wager on zkEVM

Polygon bought the Hermez Community for $250 million in 2021 and later launched its Ethereum Layer-2 ZK-rollup resolution, Polygon Hermez, in mid-2022. In July 2022, Polygon introduced the rebranding of Polygon Hermez to Polygon zkEVM, which adopted the Kind-2 zkEVM method to be EVM-equivalent however not Ethereum-equivalent.

Builders might want to adapt code and EVM instruments to the ZK-rollup. Polygon goals to succeed in 2000 transactions per second and reduce transaction prices by as much as ninety p.c, making it cheaper than the Ethereum Mainnet. Polygon launched its zkEVM Public Testnet on October 10.

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